Although discussion will revolve around work done in the teaching of languages at tertiary level, the principles examined, in most cases, are applicable to the school system as well.
2. Some theoretical
Beginners' and intermediate language learning courses at university level have, as one of their major objectives, the developments of skills which will allow students to become operational in the language being learned.
These objectives correspond to modern approaches to language learning methodology which in turn are based on notions similar to Halliday's "learning how to mean" and "meaning potential" (Halliday, 1973; Halliday, 1975). In this essentially social perspective, language learning is not limited to appropriating words, grammatical rules and pronunciation, but implies that students will learn to master, or at very least control, a large number of complex, integrated skills
Further, rather than "finding" meaning in texts or "extracting" meaning from texts, meanings are negotiated as a result of interaction between self and text and, through the text, the producers of the text. Essentially, inferences are made and verified, rejected or revised according to clues in the text. At the same time as views about language and meaning have been modified within the language teaching community, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of catering to students' learning needs and motivations (one only needs to look at the spate of needs surveys which emerged in conjunction with functional-notional approaches to language learning and which, in one way or another, have remained ever since).
There has also been the accompanying recognition that students are individuals each of whom has his/her own developing so-called "interlanguage" (Selinker, 1972) (if one happens to believe in that notion).
Given the above, it seems logical then to assert that for learning to be maximally effective and efficient students cannot all be expected to learn in the same way, in the same space, at and in the same time, all in lock-stepped synchrony.
These are some of the major
principles and beliefs which underpin the language learning environments
have been developed or are currently under development by the author and
his colleagues and which will guide the discussion which follows.
First, the greatest awareness
of all: French is a language actually used by human beings to perform important
and valuable tasks. Thus, as much as possible, French is the language of
communication in the classroom. It is recognised that a multitude of teachers
already do this, but it is nevertheless a crucial point to make as an equally
large multitude of teachers do NOT do so.
Without a range of awarenesses of many different kinds, it seems impossible to develop the ability to operate in a language.
The approach adopted for the development of awareness of linguistic and other communicative phenomena is based on the notion of optimal (Guberina, 1976) or critical (Joy & Lian, 1981) elements as posited by theorists of the verbo-tonal system.
Briefly, the theory postulates that perception is based on the detection of critical elements i.e. elements which matter to native speakers of a language, within the rich and complex whole in which they are found.
Another way of saying this is that students are confronted with an enormous mass of information from which they are required to select pertinent elements (items or "things" which matter). They are often unable to do this. It is not that they are physically unable or incapable of hearing or seeing but simply that they do not have the necessary wherewithal to organise what they hear or see. In short, they cannot work out what matters and what does not.
It is a little like totally untrained persons trying to locate Halley's comet in a sky which they have never examined before. All they can see is a mass of pinpoints of light. The trick is to find quickly and reliably the stellar configurations that matter within this global mass of pinpoints. Perception is therefore an active process. Once one knows how to find the appropriate stellar configurations (and the "how" is the really difficult part), it seems almost impossible to fail to see them (and one may even wonder sometimes at how others can be so blind or maybe even just plain stupid).
In this perspective, it is therefore important to find ways of making students aware, at a profound and personal level, of what it is that matters when they are confronted with the complexities first of understanding and then of producing language for the purpose of communication.
What, then, are some of the things that matter?
In a traditional approach, these things are grammar and vocabulary and, sometimes, pronunciation. In many cases, especially academic settings, it is also assumed that the workings of language and language rules need to be learned deductively rather than inductively from sets of metalinguistic descriptions. It is assumed that focused analysis together with the ability to describe linguistic operations will provide the learner with the prerequisite amount of knowledge necessary for communicative performance.
There are problems with such an approach. Perhaps one of the most important is that, in the heat of communicative activity, learners simply do not have the time to refer to their descriptive systems as a basis for extensive analysis and synthesis when they are faced with the complexities and substantial pressures of face to face interaction. And it is face to face interaction that most learners of foreign languages are interested in mastering, at least in Australian universities (Hawley, 1982), whether it is for the sake of experiencing a feeling of euphoria, for obtaining "insights" into other societies or for more mundane reasons such as travel or business.
Now, it would appear that the production of "communicators" in a foreign language requires "the development of a critical awareness and sensitivity to a broad range of phenomena and circumstances. These include the pertinent purposive, situational and contextual parameters which, in turn, will determine appropriate discourse structures, language registers and communicative strategies. These will then dictate the language functions to be realised through the use of vocabulary, grammatical structure, intonation, vowel and consonant sounds, gaze, the organisation of gesture and of personal space" (Lian & Joy, 1981). Awareness-raising in all of these areas needs to occur for effective communication to take place. As a consequence of this, it also seems desirable to give priority to creating awarenesses capable of developing a number of areas simultaneously. For instance, by developing the rhythmic and melodic aspects of language, one can also develop a feel for the phonetic tension of the language as well as for its syntactic organisation (e.g. length and structure of a phonological group or rhythmic chunk), thus reducing the frequency of errors in these systems too.
The actual development of relevant awarenesses is a particularly difficult area to deal with. It is not enough to point out a particular phenomenon. It is important to find ways of getting students to accept and/or understand the phenomenon and to appropriate it at a personal or psychological level and, most importantly, in doing so, to break down any blockages, which are often translated into so-called language anxiety2, which may be operating.
As a simple and very common example, it does not matter how often one repeats that, in French, some words are masculine and others feminine, it is often extremely difficult for students from an English-speaking background to use the distinction appropriately unless they have appropriated the notion of "gender". In other words, the knowledge that gender distinctions exist does not necessarily lead to operational ability . They need to have a feel for gender.
Interestingly, when the "feel" for a feature is appropriated, it often comes as a great surprise to the learner. For instance when working with the SUVAG-Lingua in order to correct the perception of sounds it is not uncommon for students to say with some amazement things like: "Oh... is that what [y] is supposed to sound like?" The actual moment of initial perception of critical elements, if it is manifest to the learner, often occurs as a kind of awesome revelation.
Although the example just quoted is true, it is undoubtedly the case that there are many different levels of awareness and that in a student's learning of a language there will be many moments and many levels of "revelation" during the progressive refinement of the conceptual systems involved.
In this section the focus shifts away from awareness of external phenomena to some specific aspects of self-awareness.
In any context, the notion of autonomy implies at least the following:
(b) "learning how to learn". It is important that students evaluate the various activities inside and outside the class and thus become aware of their own learning processes as triggered by these activities as well as their reactions to their learning processes. "Only then will they become conscious of what does or does not suit their learning style and so structure their learning experience accordingly."(Crawford, 1985)
(b) to proceed with their learning in an independent fashion.
Thus the problem here is not far removed from that dealt with in the preceding section on awareness and the same principles are likely to apply.
Perhaps the ultimate indication that autonomy has been attained is when students are seen to be trying to apply to the foreign language the same sorts of strategies that they are accustomed to using so effectively in their own native language i.e. that they know how to go about solving their language problems even if that solution happens to be beyond their current level of competence.
This notion necessarily supposes the explicit or implicit setting of objectives by both learners and teachers.
It can also refer to the feeling of satisfaction resulting from the attainment of such objectives.
Students undertaking language
courses do so for a wide variety of reasons which do not always correspond
to the objectives of the institution which they are attending. In Australia,
universities generally provide language courses purporting largely to "educate" whereas language students often enrol in order to be able to "function" in the foreign language. This is not to say that such apparently disparate objectives are irreconcilable in fact, but merely to point out the existence of important differences.
Further, within any one group of students, motivations, whether integrative or instrumental can vary considerably.
Achievement also has another important dimension. Whereas, so far, only the motivation of student has been mentioned, i.e. their conscious or unconscious reasons for learning a foreign language, students also have certain language learning needs.
This author tends to define language learning needs as resulting from an interaction between students and their language tasks (Lian & Mestre, 1983; Lian & Mestre, 1985). Inability to perform in certain areas would point to deficiencies in the students' knowledge or skills and would indicate the necessity for the provision of support. Thus, new and largely unpredictable sets of objectives emerge from learning. Furthermore as the course progresses, and this is crucial, both motivations and needs are likely to change.
Under these circumstances, it seems important that language learning structures should make a special place for achievement. Students should actually be provided with the opportunity of making progress i.e. attaining objectives, and for gauging such progress with respect to their learning as well as with respect to their personal goals.
This can be done through the setting of short-term realisable goals in the form of demanding yet manageable tasks negotiated by students and teachers in consultation with one another. Objectives of these kinds are of great value inasmuch as they provide learners with a justified feeling of making progress through the mastering of steps which, in time, will genuinely allow them to attain their long-term objectives (e.g. "I want to speak French." or "I need to pass this exam.").
In other words, students should be able to feel that they are making progress while in fact making progress. In this perspective, nothing succeeds like success and, by the same token, nothing fails like failure. This seems evidenced by the perception, in Queensland at any rate, that high school students have tended to abandon language studies because of lack of noticeable progress.
6. The learner
as an individual
Readers will have noticed by now that the above discussion has been predicated on the notion of the learner as an individual.
Indeed, it is arguable, that every student is different in many ways from every other student no only in his/her manipulation of language but in terms of, or because of, the sum total of his/her experiences, his/her inferences drawn from these experiences as well as a multitude of other factors which together constitute the learner's "self".
It is further arguable that
his/her perceptions are mediated by a "filter", also the product
of the "self". This "filter" is a metaphor for describing mechanisms for
accepting or rejecting the pertinence of events, stimuli, etc.) is not
of the same kind as the "affective" filter postulated by Dulay and Burt
(1977) nor the "socio-cultural" filter postulated by Besse (1983), nor
even the better-known "phonological" filter of Trubetzkoy (1969). All of
these filters are considered by their proponents to exercise essentially
a negative influence on language-learning to the extent that they need
to be weakened, modified or removed in some way. Rather, the filter proposed
here and elsewhere (Lian & Mestre, 1983) is considered to be a set
of mediating mechanisms which is always, and inevitably, present which
can never be avoided but which can be modified by any experience, including
the language-learning experience. Its influence a priori is neither good
nor bad. It is simply there at all times and its negative factors need
to be neutralised while its positive aspects can be developed. (For further
discussion of the problem, cf. Lian & Mestre, 1983; Lian & Mestre,
for language learning environments
As a result of the above considerations, a number of courses for which the author was primarily responsible at the University of Queensland's Department of Romance languages have evolved along the lines which will be described below.
Thus, as often as possible, the student's current state of communicative competence (including knowledge, processing skills, strategic skills, etc.) is mobilised and tested before help is provided. From a student's perspective this is significantly more interesting and more efficient than a traditional approach as not everyone has to go through the same routines. Each student can concentrate on his/her own problems even though the pedagogic demands on teachers are increased significantly.
(c) All remedial approaches attempt to raise awareness. Such awareness-raising will, as much as possible, be based on providing the student with a feel for the critical elements of what needs to be learned, be it for such apparently disparate things as the different values of verb tenses (Montredon, 1987; Lian & Montredon, 1985), the meanings of gestures (Calbris & Montredon, 1986) or the rhythm and intonation of French (Lian, 1980; Cryle & Lian, 1984).
Further, as much as possible, learning/awareness-development will be directed at a multiplicity of systems working in concert with one another. This will help to provide students with a multiplicity of memory traces of many kinds, reinforce the notion of language as a system of systems, facilitate the appropriation of lower-level system (e.g. pronunciation is fixed much more effectively after training in rhythmic and intonative patterns) and, generally, provide a more solid basis for the learning experience.
(d) Because course objectives include the development of the ability actually to communicate with native speakers of the foreign language, students are given the opportunity to deal with authentic language texts from the very beginning. It is not the course designers' goal (nor the students' ambition) to train people who are proficient at dealing with slow, simple, clear French but who will be incapable of coping with the realities of communication which include mainly fast, complex and fuzzy language. Quite the contrary.
Authentic text also provides the possibility of learning about discourse structures and communicative strategies which occur in real life and which are often filtered out of educational materials.
For all of these reasons, the area of listening (or more exactly audio-visual) comprehension has been developed greatly over the last ten years and is one of the mainstays of the course structures outlined above (Lian, 1985; Cryle & Lian, 1985). Materials used here have included extracts from a broad range of radio and television broadcasts, including feature films, which act as examples of language functions as they are actualised in real- world interaction.
(e) Students' performances are constantly monitored by the teachers and by the students themselves. This can take different forms e.g.
(ii) Video-self confrontations (VSC) of learners taking part in simulations. Here learners, as a group or individually, analyse their own performances with the help of a teacher. It should perhaps be pointed out that VSC, far from being a negative experience, can be extremely useful when managed properly. It is especially useful in helping learners to "dare" to function in the foreign language.
Use is also made of other forms of video applications particularly in the setting up of creative constraints. (For a more complete discussion of the use of video technology, cf. Lian & Mestre, 1984.)
(f) Sets of realistic goals are negotiated. These goals are set not only for the end of semester tests but at all stages during the semester and, in this sense, resemble the graded objective tests (Harding, Page & Rowell, 1980) developed in the U.K. and elsewhere. Thus there is constant feedback available.
(g) In some courses, quite
successful attempts have been made to create self-managed simulation environments
appropriate to the extraction of needs and motivations. These environments,
called macrosimulations, rely upon the creation of a collective history for the students, provide a maximum amount of freedom and initiative in setting goals and objectives while, at the same time, creating an extremely rich and largely self regulating learning environment (for further details, cf. Lian & Mestre, 1983; Lian & Mestre, 1985). Macrosimulation has attracted considerable interest in both the teaching of ESL and foreign/second language teaching. It is currently one of the environments being examined closely within a language research project being conducted between Edith Cowan University and a group of researchers from China).
The level of satisfaction of personal objectives provided by this approach can be judged by the fact that more than 95 % of those students meeting negotiated institutional/personal objectives chose to continue with their study of French in 1985/1986 whereas the normal retention rate is usually of the order of 60%.
(h) Certain of the language learning programs are open-ended. There is no book or content which absolutely has to be covered in order to say that "we have done the course".
It is recognised that language-learning, like other kinds of learning, depends upon an inferencing process, that this inferencing process will result in learners making increasingly accurate assumptions about the language being learned and that such assumptions can best be made in an environment which encourages the use of familiar linguistic structures in new contexts or new linguistic structures in familiar contexts (Crawford, 1985). Thus learners are given repeated opportunities (essentially a pedagogic spiral) for verifying or modifying their hypotheses about how the language works. In this way, they can progressively build up a store of certainty in their rather uncertain linguistic/communicative world in the foreign language.
An interesting by-product of the open-ended approaches advocated is that on several occasions, a group of advanced students was given the opportunity to determine its own course content and structure. Although it is still a little early to evaluate the success or otherwise of this decision, there is every indication that students are finding the approach rewarding and actually meeting their perceived needs. The growth of courses such as this is seen as a most positive result emerging from the development of student autonomy.
(b) Acceptance of the notion that students could take as long as they wished in order to pass any course and that they should have the opportunity to redo such a course as often as they felt it was necessary. This might sound as though one were arguing for a dramatic drop in standards. In fact this is not the case, far from it.
(c) A substantial increase in standards of performance. Unlike the current situation, every person passing a test would be certified as being fully capable of performing the tasks involved. No longer would we be in the position of awarding ranges of grades indicating approximate success and varying widely from institution to institution. The student can either perform the task (where the notion of task includes the notion of register) or cannot. For such a system to function, however, it would be necessary for students to be able to redo courses without penalty.
Thus, some students would finish quickly while others would take much longer or else would drop out.
(d) Finally it would be crucial to develop a large resource infrastructure.
Apart from providing expert help and advice in the form of persons with specialist knowledge, such an infrastructure should provide some of the following:
Such a centre could also contain a range of self-managed learning activities from which aware, autonomous students could make appropriate selections.
Not surprisingly, modern information retrieval technology and computer-aided and computer-managed learning approaches would have an extremely important role to play.
(ii) One, or preferably more than one, special purpose areas for students to engage in the preparation of relevant materials, discussions, rehearsals and/or simply reinforcing links between members of various learning groups. Here again, modern technology, tor instance in the form of a computerised "printing shop" would have a major role to play as would a modern form of language laboratory.
We should also attempt to make full use of the telecommunication and computing technologies increasingly available. It would then be possible to do such things as organise regular teleconferencing sessions with native speakers of the language being learned or consult large audio-visual databases .
Communication of this kind is already happening with the development of international "chat" programs, such as IRC (Internet Relay Chat), which allows persons from all over the world to chat to each other in writing. In the #français conference, for instance one typically finds students from France, Belgium, the USA and Sweden happily communicating with one another in French on a daily basis. Friendships and links are created. This, in turn, leads to a better understanding between people through the first-hand development of cultural and linguistic awarenesses. Effectively we have here a small international "community" at work. Much research remains to be done on these systems but the work done so far suggests that they appear to be quite successful. Significant too is the fact that for the time being these services can be made available at relatively low cost. For further details, see Mathiesen (1993).
(b) The development of a database management system for authentic materials. based on the functional-notional taxonomy (cf. van Ek, 1975; Coste, 1976; Munby, 1978). Thus it will be possible to create a very fine resolution system capable of referring teachers and learners to very specific sections of appropriate documents. e.g. A query such as "Give me an example of two old friends greeting each other in the afternoon" might result in the teacher or learner being told to look at page X of book Y which is on shelf M in the school library and also to look at videodisc Z from frame A to frame B which is in the self-access area on shelf N.
(c) Although the project was defined as far back as 1985, it is only now that implementation is about to occur. On the one hand there have been insufficient resources to activate the project, on the other the database management systems available, especially on multi-user computer systems, have either been too expensive or "unfriendly".
A subsequent part of the project will be to scan onto videodisc or compact disc a very large number of written documents (which are especially fragile when frequently handled). Thus there would be available in compact, highly portable, easy to inspect and easily reproducible format an extremely large database of materials ranging from postcards to administrative letters to whole newspapers. Under ideal conditions, these materials could be made available on demand, and directly, to teachers and learners needing them. In the best circumstances they would be down-loaded directly to the computer being used by the student or teacher, examined on the screen and printed locally if required. In the worst case, they could be faxed to the caller in a very short time.
(c) The development of a natural language database suitable for the generation of authentic-like dialogues and for use as a highly sophisticated information retrieval systems. The computational architecture could be based on a series of linked expert systems managed in a multitude of ways to produce the desired results (for further details, cf. Joy & Lian, 1983; Lian, 1986). Prototype systems have already been written in the form of simple dialogue generators.
Two remarks ought to be made about this view of classwork.
(b) Just as the student population of a workshop would change, so would the teaching population. After all, members of staff all have different backgrounds, skills and interests.
Thus the development of a needs-based workshop system has the advantage of being flexible not only for students but for staff as well. Optimal use could be made of teachers by getting them to deal with problems which are closest to their own preoccupations and preferences. For instance, some people might be willing and able to conduct grammar workshops while others might work on the development of listening skills, the proviso being, however, that a need for these workshops actually existed and that a proper mechanism for assessing students' needs was properly set up in the first place.
Programmes of the kind just outlined need continuing and vigorous research activity if they are to be implemented properly. Thus it is important to develop not only a teaching infrastructure but a research infrastructure as well with particular emphasis on such things as error analysis, diagnostic procedures, learning styles, man-machine interfaces. The list could be very long.
It is not advocated that every school or teacher carry out major research, although every schools and teachers are part of a community of researchers who often produce interesting results through experimentation but are too modest to tell the rest of the world about it. Rather, it might be possible to think of the establishment of an infrastructure created through collaboration between the primary secondary and tertiary education systems for the betterment of all language teaching in a region, a state or even nationally. Such structures could then make it their business to discover and take into account the very real research findings of teachers in the classroom.
Although these points are not likely to be controversial and can be argued for in just a few sentences, it is arguable that research is the sine quae non for proper development of the learning structures outlined.
In this paper, an attempt has been made to describe the structure and implementation of a system which, under the best possible circumstances, will be flexible, negotiable, individualised, resource-based and research-based.
In doing so, one is acutely aware of the problems involved in implementing such a system in an institutional environment, especially in view of the potential tor administrative subversion which is built into it. Indeed, if it is to work then some current institutional teaching structures may need to undergo significant modifications and, in this context, the whole notion of "course" may have to be reappraised.
This is a relatively small price to pay in the ongoing search for an optimal language learning environment.
1 This chapter is based on an article entitled Awareness, Autonomy and Achievement in Foreign Language Learning published by A-P. Lian in Revue de Phonétique Appliquée, nos 82-84,1987, pp. 167-184.
2 Language anxiety
has now become a thriving research area with many articles and a number
of doctorates, particularly in the USA being produced. See, for instance,
Young, D. J., 'The relationship between anxiety and foreign language oral
proficiency ratings', in Horwitz, E. K. & Young, D. J. Language
Anxiety: from theory and research to classroom implication,.
Besse, H., 'Pour une didactique des différences communicatives', in Revue de Phonétique Appliquée, nos. 59-60, 1981, pp. 223-238.
Calbris, G. & Montredon, J., Des gestes et des mots pour le dire, Paris, Nathan (CLE International), 1986.
Coste, D. et al, Un Niveau-Seuil, Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1976.
Crawford, J., 'Lifelines - Can an Integrated Audio-Visual Course Meet Student Needs on the On-Arrival Programme?', in SGAV Review, no. 10, December,1986, pp. 19-28.
Cryle, P.M. & Lian, A-P., Resource materials for FR113, (Intonation exercises, backup tapes and exercises), University of Queensland, Department of French (unpublished), 1984.
Cryle, P.M. & Lian, A.P., 'Sorry, I'll Play That Again', in Bowden, J.A. and Lichtenstein, S. (eds) Student Control of Learning: Computer in Tertiary Education, Centre for the Study of Higher Education, University of Melbourne, 1985, pp. 204-213.
Guberina, P., 'Stucturation et dépassement des structures perceptives et psycholinguistiques dans la méthodologie structuro-globale audiovisuelle', in Actes du 3e Colloque International SGAV pour l'enseignement des langues, Paris, Didier, 1976, pp. 41-58.
Halliday, M.A.K., Explorations in the Functions of Language, London, Edward Arnold, 1973.
Halliday, M.A.K., Learning How to Mean, London, Edward Arnold, 1975.
Harding, A., Page, B. & Rowell, S., Graded Objectives in Modern Languages, London, Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research, 1980.
Hawley, D.S., Foreign Language Study in Australian Tertiary Institutions 1974-1981, Department of European Languages, University of Wollongong, 1982.
Holec, H., Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1979.
Joy, B.K. & Lian, A-P., 'Verbo-Tonalism, Research and Language Learning', in SGAV Newsletter, July 1981, pp. 7-12.
Joy, B.K. & Lian, A-P., 'The Butcher, The Baker, The Candlestick Maker: Some Uses of Dialogue Generators in Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Learning', in Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, vol. 6, no 2, 1983, pp. 60-71.
Lian, A-P., Intonation Patterns of French, Melbourne, River Seine Publications, Teacher's Book, 189p., Student's Manual 70p., 1980.
Lian, A-P., 'An Experimental Computer-Assisted Listening Comprehension System', in Revue de Phonétique Appliquée, no. 73-74-75,1985, pp.167-184.
Lian, A-P. & Mestre, M. C., 'Toward Genuine Individualisation in Language Course Development,' in Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, vol. 6, no 2, 1983, pp. 1-19.
Lian, A-P. & Mestre, M.C., 'The Use of Video in a Communicative Approach to Learning French', in Zuber-Skerritt, O. (ed.), Videology: The Use of Video in Higher Education, Kogan Page, London 1984, pp. 257-267.
Lian, A-P. & Mestre, M. C., 'Goal Directed Communicative Interaction', in Revue de Phonétique Appliquée, no. 73-74-75, 1985, pp. 185-210.
Lian, A-P. & Montredon, J.,'Learning About Tenses: A ComputerAided Approach', paper read to the 10th Congress of the Applied Linguistics Association of Australia, Brisbane, Griffith University, 1985.
Lian, A-P. & Montredon, J. (in preparation), L'Horloge des Temps: approche pour l'apprentissage des temps verbaux français, FGPCAL Unit, University of Queensland (Computer-Aided Language Learning Series).
Mathiesen (Lian), A. B., 'Electronic communication Media and Second Language Learning', to be published in On-CALL, May 1993.
Montredon, J., Imparfait et Compagnie: Grammaire pédagogique des temps du français, Paris, Larousse, 1987.
Montredon, J., La Mauvaise Langue, videocassette and manual, production: René Didi, produced cooperatively by the University of Queensland and the University of Franche-Comté; distributed by <<Média>>, Université de Franche-Comté, 30 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25030 Besançon, France.
Munby, J., Communicative Syllabus Design, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1978.
Selinker, L., 'Interlanguage', in IRAL, vol. 10, 1972, pp. 209-231.
Trubetzkoy, N., Principles of Phonology (trans Baltaxe, C.A.M.), Bekerley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1969.
Van Ek, J. A., The Threshold Level, Strasbourg Council of Europe, 1975.